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The Roman Empire was a post-antiquity superpower that ruled most of Europe, North Africa and parts of the Middle East from roughly the 1st century BCE. The last remnants of the Roman Empire (the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire) fell to the Ottomans in the mid-15th century.
Originating in Italy, the Roman Empire represented the direct successor to the Roman Republic, which had already established the Roman city-state as a dominant force in the West a couple centuries earlier.
Though the true reasons for his exile are debated, the Romans elected not to reinstate him, and instead established the Republic, with two annually elected magistrates which came to be known as "consuls".
The first of which was the unification of the Italic peninsula, which was done over the course of hundreds of years.
When the Italic peninsula was brought under Roman control, the Republic began to expand into Sicily, bringing it into conflict with Carthage, sparking the First Punic War.
Despite this, they were basically the same exact government, the key difference being the establishment of an executive branch, overseen by an elected and non-autocratic pseudo-monarch, or "Roman Emperor".
The beginning of the Roman Empire played a strong role in the build-up of eschatological theories prior to and during the life of Jesus around the early 1st century CE.
Marius capitalised on the lack of opportunities for the poor and began a movement towards a permanent professional army.